Water Gardening

Water gardens aren’t just a garden feature; they’re a transformative experience. For many homeowners, introducing water elements to their outdoor spaces is the touch of magic they never knew they needed. But why is water gardening is gaining such popularity, and how exactly do they redefine the aesthetics and ambience of a garden?

Dive in with us as we explore the transformative power of water gardens and guide you through the steps of creating your own serene oasis. Whether you have acres of garden space or just a cozy patio, there’s a water garden waiting to elevate its charm and tranquillity.

What is a Water Garden?

Before we dive in, let’s define what we mean by a “water garden.” A water garden is a beautifully designed outdoor water feature, that incorporates various water elements such as ponds, fountains, and water plants. This garden can be small or expansive and is carefully crafted to create a serene, natural environment within your outdoor space. Water gardens often include fish, such as koi or goldfish, and aquatic plants like water lilies, adding to their visual appeal and creating a balanced ecosystem. This enchanting space offers a soothing ambience, attracts wildlife, and provides a unique blend of aesthetics and relaxation for homeowners and garden enthusiasts alike.

Types of Water Garden

Water gardens come in various sizes and forms, each offering unique gardening aesthetics and benefits.


Ponds are larger, in-ground water features. They can range from small backyard installations of just a few square feet to sprawling lakes. Due to their size, ponds can support a rich biodiversity, from various aquatic plants to native fish or pond fish, and even amphibians like frogs.

Design Variations: There are various pond types, including:

  • Natural ponds that mimic the look and feel of a natural ecosystem.
  • Koi ponds are designed specifically for koi fish, emphasizing water clarity and fish health.
  • Wildlife ponds are created with the aim of attracting and supporting local wildlife.

Container Water Gardens:

Container water garden, as the name suggests, is a water feature housed in containers. Perfect for patios, balconies, and small yards, these gardens offer an intimate touch of nature.

Here’s a step-by-step guide to creating your own container water garden:

  1. Choose the Right Container:
    • Opt for a small container that’s at least 12-18 inches deep. This provides adequate room for most water plants.
    • Ensure your its a watertight container. Ceramic pots, plastic tubs, or metal containers can be suitable, but they must not have drainage holes.
  2. Location:
    • Position your container in a spot where it receives at least 4-6 hours of sunlight daily. Many aquatic plants thrive in sun.
    • However, be cautious about placing it in a location where it might receive intense midday sun as this could overheat the water.
  3. Fill With Water:
    • Use fresh water or tap water but let it sit for 24 hours to allow any chlorine to evaporate, or use a dechlorinator.
    • If you wish, you can place a layer of gravel or decorative stones at the bottom. You can also add small statues to enhance the garden’s visual appeal.
  4. Add Soil and Plant
    • Use aquatic pots filled with heavy clay-based garden soil. Avoid potting mixes, as they can float and make your water muddy. Top the soil with a layer of gravel or small stones to keep the soil in place. Plant with small floating plants.
  5. Maintenance:
    • Remove any decaying plant matter.
    • Algae might grow if your garden receives a lot of sunlight. Regularly clean the sides of your container and consider introducing snails or other algae eaters.
    • Top off the water as it evaporates, especially during warm weather.
  6. Add Fish:
    • Introduce fish like guppies or mosquito fish. They’ll help control mosquito larvae.
    • Don’t overcrowd the container; a couple of small fish are enough for a modest-sized water garden.
  7. Winter Care:
    • If you live in an area with harsh winters, bring your container garden to a non-freezing area.

Why Water Gardening

Water gardens, whether huge estates or little backyard features have a transformational force. They don’t just transform areas; they change lives. They are a calm fusion of aquatic plants, sparkling waters, and occasionally even fish and other species.

Aesthetic Enhancement:

The allure of reflective water surfaces, juxtaposed with the vibrant colors of aquatic plants and the dynamic play of light, can make any space aesthetically pleasing. Such beauty can uplift spirits and inspire creativity.

Stress Reduction:

The sound of water flowing is universally acknowledged for its calming effects. Whether it’s the gentle babble of a brook, the cascading fall of a mini waterfall, or the tranquil stillness of a pond, water has a meditative quality. Being around a water garden can help lower stress levels, promote mental clarity, and revitalize a tired mind.

Connection with Nature:

In our fast-paced, urban lives, it’s easy to lose touch with nature. Water gardens can act as a mini sanctuary for various life forms. Birds, insects, and amphibians can make their homes here. Observing these simple ecosystems can be deeply grounding and offer a renewed appreciation for the natural world.

Boosting Biodiversity:

Water gardens can provide a refuge for many local species, promoting biodiversity in even urban environments. Plants like water lilies, cattails, and rushes not only beautify the garden but also offer habitats for insects and shelter for fish.

Microclimate Creation:

Water features can modify the local climate. They add humidity to the surrounding area, which can be a boon in dry environments. This can make the surroundings more pleasant during hot days and also benefit the plants nearby.

Therapeutic Value:

Water garden can be therapeutic for many. The act of caring for plants and fish, combined with the sensory pleasures a water garden offers, can be a healing experience. Many find solace in their routines around the pond, turning it into a form of therapy.

How to Build a Water Garden

Building a water garden can be rewarding, enhancing your outdoor space and creating a sanctuary for plants and wildlife. Here’s a guide to help you set up your very own water garden:

Planning and Design

Purpose: Decide what you want from your water garden. Is it for ornamental fish, a habitat for wildlife, or just the tranquil sound of water?

Location: Choose a location that gets at least four to six hours of full sun if you plan on having aquatic plants. Avoid placing directly under trees to reduce debris and leaves falling into the water.

Size and Depth: Depending on your space and goals, decide on the size. A depth of 18-24 inches is usually adequate for small fish and most aquatic plants.

Water Source: Considering the water source is crucial for ensuring a consistent and quality water supply. Whether sourcing from tap, rainwater, or natural streams, it’s essential to factor in water treatment needs, replenishment frequency, and potential environmental impact to maintain a healthy aquatic environment.


Liner: A flexible liner (like PVC or EPDM) allows you to create ponds of custom shapes. Preformed liners are also available.

Pump and Filtration System: These keep the water circulating, vital for oxygenation and clarity.

Stones and Gravel: These will line the base and edges of the pond, providing a natural look.

Plants and Fish: Choose aquatic plants suitable for your climate. If you want fish, goldfish or koi are popular choices.


Mark the desired shape on the ground with spray paint or a garden hose.

Start digging! Remember to dig deeper towards the center if you want varying depths.

Keep the removed soil; it can be used to landscape around your pond later.

Installing the Liner

First, line the hole with an underlay like an old carpet or specialized pond underlay to protect against sharp objects.

Spread the flexible liner over the hole, pressing it into place. If using a pre-formed liner, fit it into the hole.

Fill the pond with a few inches of water to settle the liner.

Installing the Pump and Filtration:

Place the pump in the deepest part of the pond, ensuring it’s fully submerged. Install the filtration system following the manufacturer’s instructions. Ensure the power source is safely distanced from the water, and consider a GFCI outlet for safety.

Adding Stones and Gravel

Start by placing larger stones or boulders around the edge. This helps to secure the liner and creates a natural border. Add a layer of gravel (1-2 inches deep) to the bottom of the pond.

Add any additional features like fountains or waterfalls.

Adding Plants and Fish

Water Plants: Use water plants with contrasting shapes to create appealing compositions

  1. Marginal Plants: Marginal plants or shelf plants are those that grow around the edges or margins of water bodies, with their roots submerged but the majority of the plants above water, such as cattails and irises.
  2. Floating Plants: Floating plants are those that float on the water’s surface without the need for soil, deriving their nutrients directly from the water, examples are water lilies, water lettuce, water hyacinths and duckweed.
  3. Bog Plants: While these can sometimes overlap with marginal plants, bog plants such as pitcher plants thrive in the wet, muddy zones around a pond’s edge or in constructed bog areas.
  4. Submerged Plants (Oxygenators): These plants live almost entirely underwater and help oxygenate the pond. Examples are hornwort, elodea and milfoil.

Fish: Before introducing fish, let the water settle for a week or two. This helps in balancing the micro-ecosystem. Acclimate the fish to the water temperature by floating their bag in the pond before releasing them. Release the fish gently into their new home.

Care and Maintenance of Water Garden

  1. Water Quality Monitoring: Regularly check the water’s clarity and pH levels. Consider using water treatments or beneficial bacteria to maintain a balanced ecosystem.
  2. Pump and Filtration Maintenance: Clean the pump filter and ensure it’s functioning correctly. Replace or clean filtration media as needed.
  3. Algae Control: Algae growth can be controlled by reducing direct sunlight on the water, introducing oxygenating plants, or using safe algaecides.
  4. Prune and Deadhead Plants: Regularly prune overgrown aquatic plants and remove dead or decaying plant material, which can cause water imbalance.
  5. Debris Removal: Skim the water surface to remove leaves, twigs, and other debris that can decompose and negatively affect water quality.
  6. Fish Health: If you have fish, monitor them for signs of disease or stress. Feed them appropriately, putting too much fish food can lead to water quality issues.
  7. Winter Care: In colder climates, consider using a pond heater or aerator to ensure a part of the pond remains unfrozen, allowing gas exchange for fish. Remove tropical plants or transfer them to indoor aquariums.
  8. Water Level: Ensure the water level remains consistent, especially in warmer months. Refill as necessary, but be wary of using chlorinated tap water directly; consider using a dechlorinater.
  9. Pest and Predator Management: Watch out for pests like mosquitoes by maintaining good water circulation. Protect your pond from predators like herons or raccoons using netting or decoys.
  10. Regular Inspections: At least once a week, inspect the pond liner for leaks, check equipment for proper functioning, and observe the overall health of the ecosystem.

Safety Considerations

If you have young children, consider fencing the area or covering the pond with a net. Always be cautious when handling electrical equipment near water.


In this journey through the mesmerizing world of water garden, we’ve explored how and why it transform your outdoor space. Beyond the aesthetic appeal, water gardens bring a sense of calm and tranquility, creating a haven of serenity right in your backyard. The gentle gurgle of water, the vibrant aquatic life, and the lush aquatic plants can turn your garden into a sanctuary for both you and nature.

By understanding the basics of setting up and maintaining a water garden, you can embark on a rewarding gardening adventure. Make your outdoor space come alive, and your soul find peace amidst the beauty of aquatic nature. Dive in, and let your garden transformation begin!


  1. What should you plant in your water garden?
    • In your water garden, you should plant a mix of submerged plants like anacharis, floating plants and emergent plants like water lilies and cattails to create a balanced ecosystem and aesthetic appeal.
  2. Will my water garden attract mosquitoes?
    • Stagnant water in a garden can attract mosquitoes as it provides a breeding ground for their larvae. However, maintaining good water circulation with a pump or adding fish that eat mosquito larvae can effectively control their population.
  3. Can I plant edible plants in my aquatic gardens?
    • Yes, you can plant edible plants in your aquatic garden. Examples of aquatic edible plants include watercress, water chestnut, and lotus, which provide both aesthetic appeal and culinary benefits.
  4. Are some water garden plants invasive?
    • Yes, some water garden plants, like water hyacinth and purple loosestrife, can be invasive, rapidly spreading and potentially harming local ecosystems if they escape into natural water bodies. It’s crucial to choose plants suitable for your region and take precautions to prevent their spread.